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Application of Battery in Explosion proof Certification Technology

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| 2020-06-22|Return

Battery is an essential core component in some explosion-proof equipment, especially in portable products. Secondary batteries are commonly used in explosion-proof mobile phones, explosion-proof walkie talkies, explosion-proof handheld terminals, and other applications.

Currently commonly used batteries:

1. Lead acid batteries (VRLA):

Definition: An electrode is mainly made of lead and its oxides, and the electrolyte is a sulfuric acid solution for a battery. In the discharge state of lead-acid batteries, the main component of the positive electrode is lead dioxide, and the main component of the negative electrode is lead. In the charging state, the main component of the positive and negative electrodes is lead sulfate.

Advantages: Safe sealing, simple maintenance, stable quality, high reliability, and simple production process.

Disadvantages: poor cycle life, low density, long charging time, heavy weight, and environmental pollution.


2. Nickel chromium batteries (Ni Cd):

Definition: The earliest type of battery used in mobile phones, ultrasound and other devices, with good high current discharge characteristics, strong resistance to overcharging and discharging, and simple maintenance.

Advantages: Low price, low internal resistance, no leakage, stable quality, high reliability, and simple production process.

Disadvantages: Short lifespan, small capacity, environmental pollution, and memory effect.


3. Nickel hydrogen batteries (Ni MH):

Definition: Synthesized from hydrogen ions and metallic nickel.

Advantages: Cheap price, 30% more battery capacity than nickel cadmium batteries, lighter than nickel cadmium batteries, longer service life, longer lifespan, resistant to overcharging and discharging, pollution-free to the environment, better low-temperature performance than lithium batteries, and high recycling value.

Disadvantages: expensive price, low energy density, low nominal voltage, large self discharge, poor high-temperature charging performance, and worse performance than lithium batteries.


4. Lithium Cell:

Definition: A type of battery consisting of lithium metal or lithium alloy as negative electrode material and using non-aqueous electrolyte solution. Generally, batteries use manganese dioxide as the positive electrode material, lithium metal or its alloy metal as the negative electrode material, and non-aqueous electrolyte solutions.

Advantages: High energy density, long service life, high rated voltage, low self discharge rate, light weight, high power bearing capacity, strong adaptability to high and low temperatures, basically no water consumption in production, and no pollution to the environment.

Disadvantages: expensive price, unstable safety, and inability to discharge high current in lithium cobalt oxide batteries.

 


Introduction to several commonly used lithium batteries:

1. Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4):

Advantages: Low price, good low-temperature performance, over 90% efficiency when discharging at -20 ℃, good safety performance, and high rate performance.

Disadvantages: Poor high-temperature performance, low cycle life (normal life is about 300 to 400 times), low specific capacity (112 times), and low energy density.

Industry: Electric vehicles.


2. Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2):

Advantages: Stable performance, superior electrochemical performance, good consistency, and high vibration density.

Disadvantages: average safety, high cost, and environmental pollution.

Industry: Mobile phones, laptops, and other portable electronic devices.


3. Ternary lithium Li (NiCoMn) O2:

Advantages: high capacity (150. can save volume), good cycle life (600 to 700 times), and good rate discharge.

Disadvantage: The safety performance is the worst among lithium batteries (especially those with steel shells).

Industry: Electric vehicles.


4. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4):

Advantages: Moderate price, moderate capacity (130), high cycle life (around 1500 cycles), good high-temperature performance, and good rate discharge.

Disadvantages: poor conductivity, affordable price, poor low-temperature discharge performance, and its superior performance can only be fully demonstrated in electric vehicles (able to fully charge in 6 minutes and discharge 20 times), with poor consistency.

Industry: Electric vehicles.

Summary: With the continuous improvement of lithium battery technology, the traditional lead-acid, nickel hydrogen, and nickel chromium battery markets are being rapidly replaced by lithium batteries.

 

4、 Requirements for batteries in explosion-proof areas:

GB3836 and IEC60079 have clear requirements for batteries, but due to GB3836 falling behind international standards, the use of lithium batteries has not yet been relaxed.

Note 1: Most domestic certification agencies actually accept lithium battery equipment, and each agency has different requirements. However, a unified requirement is to provide third-party testing reports or conduct tests within the organization.

Note 2: Intrinsic safety products will undergo random testing according to standards.

 

5、 The test report for lithium batteries in explosion-proof areas is as follows:

1. GB31241-2014 "Safety requirements for lithium-ion batteries and battery packs for portable electronic products".

Note: This standard is a mandatory national standard for portable lithium batteries.

2. MT/T 1051-2007 "Lithium ion batteries for mining lamps".

Note: This standard is for lithium batteries specifically designed for mining lamps.

3. QC/T 743-2006 "Lithium ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles".

Note: This standard is for lithium batteries used in electric vehicles.

4. IEC62133-2012 "Safety requirements for portable sealed secondary single cell batteries and batteries (packs) containing alkaline or non acidic electrolytes, batteries (packs) composed of cells, and their application in portable devices".

Note: This standard is an international standard for battery safety.

5. IEC61960-2012 "Secondary battery cells or batteries containing alkaline or other non acidic electrolytes: Portable lithium secondary battery cells or batteries"

Note: This standard is mainly for battery performance, with a very long testing cycle (about 10 months), and is also a requirement for lithium batteries specified in international explosion-proof standards.

 

6、 Requirements for lithium batteries inside explosion-proof chambers:

1. There is a protective device to prevent high battery temperature and battery damage.

2. There are two ways to prevent polarity reversal or reverse charging by another battery within the same battery pack.

A. Set up an over discharge protection device to monitor the voltage at both ends of a single battery or battery pack, and cut off the power when the voltage drops below the minimum voltage specified by the battery manufacturer.

B. Each individual battery is connected in parallel with a diode.

3. When a single battery or battery pack is allowed to charge inside an explosion-proof enclosure, a protective circuit should be installed to prevent overcharging.

4. The battery is only allowed to be connected in series;

For specific requirements, please refer to Appendix E of GB3836.2-2010 and IEC60079:1-2014.

 

7、 Requirements for increased safety intracavity batteries (including spark free types):

1. If a single battery needs to be charged in a hazardous location, the charging circuit should be considered as part of the equipment, and even if there is a fault in the charging system, the charging voltage and current cannot exceed the manufacturer's specified limits.

2. When more than three airtight individual batteries are connected in series, an over discharge protection circuit should be installed to prevent reverse charging of the individual batteries during discharge. (No more than 6 individual batteries connected in series should be protected by an over discharge circuit).

3. The battery is only allowed to be connected in series.

 

8、 Lead acid batteries:

IEC 60896-11

IEC 60254

IEC 60095-1

IEC 60896-21

IEC 60952

IEC 61427

IEC 61056-1

 

9、 Nickel chromium batteries:

IEC 61951-1

IEC 60623

IEC 60622

 

10、 Nickel hydrogen batteries:

IEC 61951-2

 

11、 Other reporting standards:

1. MSGS (Material Safety Data Sheet), also known as Chemical Testing

2. UN38.3: According to the relevant provisions of the International Aeronautical Association's Dangerous Goods Regulations, a standard for operating rechargeable lithium batteries has been developed, namely UN38.3 safety testing

3. Lithium battery cells: UL 1642/UL E62133/CSA E62133

4. Household and commercial batteries: UL 2054/UL E62133/CSA E62133

5. CE batteries: EN55022, EN55024

6. FCC Battery: Part 15B

7. PSE lithium batteries: JIS C 8712, JIS C 8714

8. KC portable secondary lithium battery cells and batteries: K62133

9. BIS battery/portable mobile power supply: IS16046

10. CTIA mobile phone and laptop batteries: IEEE1725, IEEE1625


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